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α-Trifluoromethyl substituted amino acids are very attractive compounds for the design of biologically active compounds . The incorporation of trifluoromethyl groups carrying building blocks into peptides can result in increase chemical and thermal stability, increased resistance to degradation by proteases , and enhanced lipophilicity, i.e. better affinity to lipid membranes. Stabilization of particular conformations and auto-assembly  can be induced. Also useful as label for 19F-NMR studies .
 V. P. Kukhar, V. A. Soloshonok in Fluorine Containing Amino Acids: Synthesis and Properties, Wiley, New York, 1995.
 B. Koksch, N. Sewald, H.-J. Hofmann, K. Burger, H.-D. Jakubke, J. Pept. Sci. 1997; 3: 157-167.
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b) S. L. Grage, U. H. N. Duerr, S. Afonin, P. K. Mikhailiuk, I. V. Komarov, A. S. Ulrich, J. Magn. Reson. 2008; 191: 16-23;
c) P. K. Mikhailiuk, S. Afonin, A. N. Chernega, E. B. Rusanov, M. O. Platonov, G. G. Dubinina, M. Berditsch, A. S. Ulrich, I. V. Komarov, Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2006; 45: 5659-5661.
 Convenient Synthesis of N-Terminal Tfm-Dipeptides from Unprotected Enantiopure α-Tfm-Proline and α -Tfm-Alanine; Grégory Chaume, Nathalie Lensen, Caroline Caupène, and Thierry Brigaud; Eur. J. Org. Chem. 2009; 5717-5724.
 Concise access to enantiopure (S)- and (R)-a-trifluoromethyl pyroglutamic acids from ethyl trifluoropyruvate-based chiral CF3-oxazolidines (Fox); Grégory Chaume, Marie-Céline Van Severen, Louis Ricard, Thierry Brigaud; Journal of Fluorine Chemistry 2008; 129: 1104-1109.
 Synthesis of 2-Trifluoromethyl-1,3-oxazolidines as Hydrolytically Stable Pseudoprolines; Grégory Chaume, Olivier Barbeau, Philippe Lesot, and Thierry Brigaud; J. Org. Chem. 2010; 75: 4135-4145.
 Straightforward Synthesis of (S)- and (R)-r-Trifluoromethyl Proline from Chiral Oxazolidines Derived from Ethyl Trifluoropyruvate; Grégory Chaume, Marie-Céline Van Severen, Sinisa Marinkovic, and Thierry Brigaud; Org. Lett., 2006; 8(26): 6123-6126.
 Iodocyclization of Chiral CF3-Allylmorpholinones: A Versatile Strategy for the Synthesis of Enantiopure α-Tfm-Prolines and α-Tfm-Dihydroxyprolines; Caroline Caupène, Grégory Chaume, Louis Ricard, and Thierry Brigaud; Org. Lett. 2009; 11 (1): 209-212.
γ-(S)-Trifluoromethyl proline: evaluation as a structural substitute of proline for solid state 19F-NMR peptide studies;
Vladimir Kubyshkin, Sergii Afonin, Sezgin Kara, Nediljko Budisa, Pavel K. Mykhailiuk and Anne S. Ulrich; Org. Biomol. Chem. 2015; 13: 3171. DOI: 10.1039/c5ob00034c.
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